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Screw press for cbd oil using coconut oil

Oil Extraction Machine Complete Guide

From peanut butter and coconut oil to CBD products and fragrant soaps, oil extraction is the process behind many valuable items derived from agricultural products. Creating those products calls for an oil extraction machine. Oil extraction machines are a versatile type of machinery, helping agricultural businesses do more with their yields. These expeller pressers are typically based on a screw system, putting heat, friction and pressure to work as they squeeze oils out of different materials.

Let’s take a closer look at how oil extraction machines work, how they’re used and what they’re made of.

In This Article

What Is an Oil Extraction Machine?

An oil extraction machine, also called an oil press or expeller, uses high pressure and heat to “squeeze” the oils out of a plant product. Those products — including seeds, nuts, vegetables, fruits and leafy plants — release their oils through this mechanical process, which is often done without adding any chemicals.

Oil extraction machines typically use a screw press. Some products, like groundnuts, need to be shelled or peeled before moving through the screw press. The peeling process might use powerful centrifugal forces or airflow from a fan to separate lightweight shells from the heavier nut.

After peeling, the product is fed into the screw system, which comprises a screw inside a high-pressure cylindrical chamber. The material moves through the screw, generating friction and heat. While the high pressure squeezes out much of the oil, the heat contributes, too. It can denature some of the proteins in the product and increase the viscosity of the oil for easier movement.

As the oil is pressed out, it seeps through a screen or filter to ensure that no solids or fibers move with it. This creates a clean, smooth product. The leftover pressed seeds form a hard cake that is removed from the machine, and the oil flows out into a separate container.

The heat generated in this process can affect some materials in undesirable ways, and harder products like nuts generate more heat than softer products like fruits. To combat the extra heat, some users choose to cold-press certain materials by controlling the temperature in some way. They might use some additional chemicals or a centrifugal system to help draw the oils out without adding more pressure.

Uses of an Oil Extraction Machine

Oil extraction machines are very versatile. You can find different styles to accommodate various agricultural products, and the oils can be made into numerous items, like cooking oils, fragrances, cosmetics, soaps, pet food, biofuel, wood treatments and paint.

Some of the plant sources that work with oil extraction machines include:

  • Seeds: Oils can come from seeds like cottonseed, sesame, hemp, sunflower, amaranth and canola. They’re often used for cooking applications, but they can also be found in items like fuel and paint.
  • Nuts: The nut harvesting industry can create oils from peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts, cashews and many other nuts. These tend to be more expensive than other oils because the extraction process is more challenging. They take more pressure to crack, usually require peeling and produce more heat than other products do. Nut oils are common in food and cooking, with some applications in cosmetics, too.
  • Vegetables and fruits: Oil extracted from fruits and vegetables like olives, palm fruit and avocados are also used in cooking, as well as in biofuels, cosmetics and soaps. Citrus fruits like lemons and oranges can also be pressed and used in essential oils.
  • Other plants: Leafier plants like chamomile, eucalyptus, oregano, patchouli and peppermint also release oils. These products are often used as essential oils and in items like cosmetics, candles, perfumes and soap. Many people use the essential oils themselves as fragrance and for purported health benefits. Oil can even be extracted from algae and used in biofuel and nutritional supplementation.
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The amount of oil you get from each product can vary. Peanuts, for instance, have a high oil content of 45-52%, while hemp seeds contain about 25-30% oil. In some cases, the leftover materials generated from the extraction process are valuable, too. Canola meal is the material left after the oil is extracted from the seeds, and it is 38-42% protein. It also contains a good balance of amino acids, making it a popular additive for livestock feed. Oil extraction machines can help expand one product in many different avenues.

The price of oil products makes them a great way to potentially get more value out of crops. Many types of oils, especially those that are used in biofuels, have seen significant price increases. If you’re looking for something else to do with a crop, such as new revenue channels or using up extra inventory, oil extraction could be a good option.

Parts of an Oil Extraction Machine

Oil extraction machines can come in several configurations, but here are some of the main components you’ll typically find:

  • Hopper: The hopper is a metal structure that funnels the raw material into the screw press.
  • Screw press: The screw press is the powerhouse of the oil expeller. The screw shaft rotates within a cylindrical cage, pushing the material forward in a high-pressure chamber. Friction is generated between the material, the screw shaft, the feedstock and the press chamber itself.
  • Gear reduction unit: The gear reduction unit, or gearbox, converts the speed and torque of the electric motor to the right settings for the machine.
  • Slots or screens: A screening surface allows oils to seep out while keeping the leftover materials moving through the screw, where they press into a “cake” for removal.
  • Frame: The metal frame provides the support for and connects these components.
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You’ll find various other parts in an oil extraction machine like lock nuts, rings, seals and gaskets that make up these larger components and link them together. These parts might be made of metals and elastomeric materials, both of which offer long-lasting durability in the tough, messy conditions of oil pressing.

Elastomeric Components for Oil Extraction Machines

Global Elastomeric Products creates a wide range of elastomeric products to support your oil-pressing operation. We produce a variety of tools, including custom rubber molding for the agricultural industry, and we can help you keep your equipment running smoothly or bring new machinery to life with custom rubber molding. Our company’s ISO certification and in-house engineering allow us to build high-quality components for your unique needs.

To learn more about our custom rubber molding process and how we can assist with oil extraction equipment, please reach out to us with any questions or to request a quote.

Screw press for cbd oil using coconut oil

March 28, 2019

Vincent continues to experience high demand for screw presses for solvent and oil recovery in hemp processing. Over the past twenty-four months we’ve seen a gradual shift from Lab Size equipment to Pilot Plant operations. We are now quoting industrial scale processing facilities with 200,000 pounds per day requirements for 2020. In addition to these larger projects, we continue to be a go-to solution for the smaller operators, with over forty screw presses, capable of 100 to 350 lbs/hr, ordered in the past six weeks.

A majority of our presses are used in the CBD and THC extraction process. Many types of extraction are currently being used: “hydrocarbon” (typically butane or propane), supercritical CO2, coconut or olive oil, ethanol (alcohol), and even hexane or heptane. Hydrocarbon and supercritical CO2 are primarily used for THC production as they give a much better terpene profile and associated flavor. Ethanol extraction, which only really entered the scene two years ago, has quickly become the mainstream, cost effective strategy for processors of all sizes.

When processing hemp for CBD oil, it is first dried and then soaked in ethanol. A typical mix would be 300 gallons per 1000 pounds of biomass. In the early days Vincent screw presses were used primarily for recovering additional solvent and oil following this initial wash. Free run solvent was either allowed to drain off, or was spun out in a centrifuge. In this application an additional 20% – 30% of solvent and oils is recovered. Our screw presses quickly pay for themselves with as much as 325 gallons being recovered from every 10,000 pounds of spent hemp. Ethanol represents the largest operating expense of a processor, especially when using 200 proof (because of the Federal Excise Tax.).

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Press liquor expelled by the screw press goes through a winterization or de-fatting process. This removes suspended solids, waxes, lipids, and fines. We are aware of customers doing this at -80C to as high as ambient temperature.

Traditionally this has been a batch mode process. We are currently working with apparatus innovators who have brought continuous processing de-fatting equipment to market which can handle 3K, 5K and 15K liters per hour.

Diatomaceous earth or activated charcoal filtration can be used to remove chlorophyll and other impurities.

Finally, the liquor will go through an alcohol reclamation process to recover ethanol which is re-used upstream on fresh plant material. Typical equipment used for this purpose includes Rotovaps, falling film column evaporators as well as traditional ‘stills’. In general processors should anticipate a 92% recovery rate of ethanol through this processing. The technology around these operations is evolving quickly, with much theory borrowed from the flavor and fragrance industries.

At this point of the processing cycle, Vincent equipment has done its job and has given processors their valuable crude oil. This oil contains as much as 60% of the pure CBD Oil they are going after. Typically this crude will go through a short path fractional distillation or wiped thin-film evaporators.

At the other end of the process, on the farm, in 2018 Vincent spear-headed the use of alfalfa screw presses. These were used, at harvest, for removing excess water (juice) from fresh forage chopped hemp. The results have been significant, with the removal of up to 40% by weight as press liquor, with negligible CBD oil loss. Physical volume is reduced by up to 50%, with drying time being reduced by 2.5x. Over the past month we have received multiple orders for presses capable of running up to two acres per hour for this application. The drying process represents the biggest bottleneck and capital expense at harvest.

Vincent is proud to be participating in the introduction of efficient, high throughput, continuous processing capabilities to a maturing hemp industry.