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How to pick a cbd oil best for me

How to pick a cbd oil best for me

As of 2022, CBD that comes from hemp (a type of cannabis sativa plant) that produces no more than 0.3% THC by dry weight is considered legal at the federal level. State laws vary, so it’s best to confirm any rules and regulations that apply to your area with your local and state legislation.

Is CBD oil safe?

The FDA reports it’s only seen limited data regarding the safety of CBD. Anyone interested in consuming CBD in any form should first consult with their healthcare provider and be aware of potential risks associated with using CBD products, including liver injury, drug interactions and male reproductive toxicity.

Who should use CBD oil?

A growing body of research suggests CBD oil can benefit people with:

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • PTSD
  • Epilepsy syndromes
  • Opioid addiction
  • Neurodegenerative disorders and diseases
  • Unmanageable chronic pain
  • Diabetic complications
  • Arthritis

Talk to your healthcare provider to learn more about whether CBD oil could be beneficial for you.

Can CBD oil impact the results of a drug test?

Standard drug tests don’t screen for CBD because it’s not an intoxicating substance, nor is it an illegal controlled substance. However, some CBD products contain trace amounts of THC, which can affect the results of a drug test.

Sources

Footnotes

  • Battista N, Di Tommaso M, Bari M, Maccarrone M. The endocannabinoid system: an overview. Front Behav Neurosci. 2012;6:9.

References

  • VanDolah HJ, Bauer BA, Mauck KF. Clinicians’ Guide to Cannabidiol and Hemp Oils. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94(9):1840-1851.
  • Lu H-C, Mackie K. An introduction to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;79(7):516–525.
  • Cather JC, Cather JC. Cannabidiol primer for healthcare professionals. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2020;33(3):376–379.
  • FDA and Cannabis: Research and Drug Approval Process. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed 8/10/2021.
  • FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed 8/10/2021.
  • What is third party certification?. National Science Foundation. Accessed 8/10/2021.
  • How to read a COA and why it’s so important. ACS Laboratory. Accessed 8/10/2021.
  • What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed 8/10/2021.
  • Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test?. Consumer Reports. Accessed 8/10/2021.

Information provided on Forbes Health is for educational purposes only. Your health and wellness is unique to you, and the products and services we review may not be right for your circumstances. We do not offer individual medical advice, diagnosis or treatment plans. For personal advice, please consult with a medical professional.

Forbes Health adheres to strict editorial integrity standards. To the best of our knowledge, all content is accurate as of the date posted, though offers contained herein may no longer be available. The opinions expressed are the author’s alone and have not been provided, approved or otherwise endorsed by our advertisers.

Alena is a professional writer, editor and manager with a lifelong passion for helping others live well. She is also a registered yoga teacher (RYT-200) and a functional medicine certified health coach. She brings more than a decade of media experience to Forbes Health, with a keen focus on building content strategy, ensuring top content quality and empowering readers to make the best health and wellness decisions for themselves.

What To Look For When Shopping for CBD Products

CBD oil is a versatile supplement, but now it’s also a growing market, which entails the risk of stumbling upon unscrupulous scam-artists trying to make a quick buck on misinformed customers, too.

Is there any way to tell that you’re looking at high-quality CBD oil?

While it’s not easy for consumers to determine which CBD brands and products they should choose, there are several factors that can tell you right away whether you’re dealing with a reputable vendor or with one of the aforementioned fly-by-night suppliers.

Having been in the industry for years, we’ve set out certain quality standards that we incorporate into our farming, extraction, and lab-testing practices. Before launching Gold Bee, we’ve been working in the organic superfoods space, so we can tell the difference between a good crop and a bad crop, point you to the right extraction methods, and highlight all the important points on your checklist before choosing CBD oil.

In this article, we’ve put together our knowledge in one place so that you can choose your CBD oil based on thorough research rather than marketing buzz.

How to Choose CBD Oil?

There are thousands of cannabis products on the shelves and in online stores — but determining what’s safe and effective is up to you.

The CBD space is unregulated by the FDA, and many brands are taking advantage of that fact churning out poor-quality, sometimes dangerous products.

According to statistics, up to 70% of CBD oil products sold locally are mislabeled and contain significantly less CBD than stated on the bottle. Other products have residual contaminants, but then again, the market is unregulated, so companies aren’t obliged to test their CBD oils in third-party laboratories for potency and purity — although it’s the industry’s standard.

The market has matured since its first years. That being said, due diligence is still required if you don’t want to fall victim to sketchy vendors.

Then there’s also the question of your preferences, dosage needs, different product types, formulas, concentrations, and more — choosing CBD oil for the first time can be a pain.

Okay, enough of the negative vibes.

Problems aren’t negative by nature because there’s always a way to solve them.

Below we cover everything you need to know if you’re about to choose your first bottle of CBD oil.

Know the Difference Between CBD Oil and Hemp Seed Oil

Hemp is used in lots of different product categories, from food to health supplements to skincare products.

When you choose CBD oil for the first time, you need to make sure you’re buying the actual CBD oil — not hemp seed oil.

These two products are confusingly sold as “hemp oils,” which is an umbrella term for all oils derived from hemp.

However, hemp seed oil and CBD oil are two completely different products.

Hemp seed oil is made from the plant’s seeds. And while it has a rich nutritional content — chock-full of omega fatty acids, proteins, vitamins, and trace minerals — it doesn’t contain any CBD or any cannabinoids for that matter. This type of hemp oil is made by cold-pressing the seeds.

CBD oil, on the other hand, is extracted from the plant’s flowers. This is the resinous part of hemp, where all the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids are secreted. The flowers are harvested and then treated with pressurized CO2 to pull the beneficial compounds from the plant material. The resulting product is a thick, dark liquid that has a botanical smell. Once extracted, the oil is suspended in a food-grade carrier oil such as MCT oil or hemp seed oil.

So, while both products come from the same plant, they use different parts and thus have different properties and applications.

Tip: If you want to make sure you’re choosing the actual CBD oil, read what the label says. If it states “CBD oil” or “full-spectrum hemp extract,” then you’re looking at the right product. On the other hand, if it says “hemp seed oil” or “hemp oil,” you might be looking at a culinary oil.

Set Your Goals with CBD

The first thing to consider when you choose CBD oil is why you want to take it. Though CBD is praised for numerous potential health benefits — backed by scientific research — each person may have different expectations when it comes to the effects.

CBD oil isn’t the only format you can choose; there are CBD capsules, topicals, edibles, and vapes — each of them might be appropriate.

According to experts, the method of consumption determines the onset, type, and duration of the effects.

For immediate relief of stress or physical discomfort, inhaling CBD may be the most effective; if you want to ensure efficient absorption and don’t mind waiting several minutes for the effects to kick in, CBD oil drops will be your best bet. Oral forms of CBD, such as capsules and edibles, are better suited for the means of daily supplementation thanks to the level of convenience they offer. Finally, topical products may lend their hand if you suffer from localized discomfort, such as muscle stiffness and soreness.

Consider the THC Content

The THC content in your CBD oil determines not only its effects but also legal status — something that is important to many people who choose CBD for the first time. Research suggests that in some people, CBD may be more beneficial when taken in tandem with at least a little THC.

The synergistic interaction between CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids, as well as terpenes, is known as the entourage effect. According to this concept, the sum of the two chemicals, plus other related compounds, provide greater efficacy than their individual parts.

Hemp-derived CBD oil contains very little THC — up to 0.3% — which isn’t enough to get you high but maybe enough to leverage the health benefits of CBD. Such products are legal on a federal level and you can find them in dispensaries, vape shops, organic health stores, pharmacies, and online stores.

With marijuana-derived CBD oil, it’s a different story. CBD products extracted from marijuana plants are legal only in the states that have legalized its recreational use. You’ll mostly find them in cannabis dispensaries. Dispensaries sell a wide range of CBD products, from high-CBD marijuana strains to oils, tinctures, topicals, and vape pens. If your state only allows medical marijuana, then you’ll need a prescription or an MMJ card to purchase marijuana-derived CBD.

What to Look for in CBD Oil?

Now that we’ve established the prep work behind choosing CBD oil, it’s time to take a peek at the factors that directly affect its quality. Here are a few important questions to ask yourself before you choose a CBD product and add it to your cart.

Is the Hemp Organic?

The source of hemp is paramount because it is where CBD and other valuable compounds are secreted. Since hemp plants are dynamic bioaccumulators, they easily absorb every substance from the soil they grow in. When cultivated in clean and nutrient-dense soil, the hemp will yield high-CBD flowers that are free of any contaminants. On the other hand, mass-produced hemp will yield poor concentrations of CBD, not to mention the presence of heavy metals and other toxins in the final product.

Most hemp in CBD products sold in the United States comes from Colorado, California, Oregon, and Kentucky, which have long histories with cannabis cultivation. Some companies import hemp from overseas, which may be risky from the customer’s perspective because such hemp isn’t subject to U.S. federal quality testing.

Don’t know which CBD oil to choose? We always recommend purchasing from manufacturers who use locally grown hemp. Not only do you support local farmers this way, but you’re also getting a product that is compliant with the FDA guidelines.

How Was the Product Extracted?

Once grown to full maturity and harvested, the plant is taken to an extraction facility, where the lab workers use different methods to extract the beneficial compounds from the source material. CBD can be extracted in many ways — the most popular being CO2, ethanol, and organic solvents such as butane, propane, or hexane.

CO2 is the industry’s golden standard. Pressurized carbon dioxide efficiently pulls the cannabinoids and terpenes from the plant material without using additional heat or toxic solvents. This technology ensures pure CBD extracts that maintain consistent potency throughout the batches.

Ethanol extraction is an acceptable alternative. In fact, the traditional cannabis tinctures were made using alcohol. However, this method isn’t as efficient as CO2 extraction when it comes to broad-scale manufacturing. The purging process also needs to be run with caution, as alcohol is highly flammable.

The cheapest — and the riskiest — way to extract CBD from hemp is through hydrocarbon extraction. Hydrocarbon solvents include substances like butane, hexane, and propane. They are a low-cost method of making cannabis concentrates. Unfortunately, they’re also difficult to purge from the final product, leaving toxic impurities that can make you sick.

When choosing CBD oil, we encourage you to opt for CO2-extracted products. They are slightly more expensive than alcohol-based extracts, but it’s worth spending a few dollars more on a better-quality product.

Has It Been Third-Party Tested?

Always ask to see a product’s certificate of analysis (COA). The document shows how a product went through tests checking for CBD and THC concentrations, and the presence of contaminants.

The lab-reports should come from a third-party laboratory. “Third-party” means that the facility has no affiliation with the manufacturer and thus can provide unbiased results.

Some companies test their products throughout the entire production process — from the seed to the bottle — while others only test the final product. Regardless of the company’s testing practices, you should check if the lab reports are batch-specific and up-to-date.

If an online manufacturer or a local store doesn’t provide the information or refuses to share it, avoid the product and the vendor.

Are There Any Other Ingredients In It?

CBD oils have a simple formula. They mostly consist of a full-spectrum hemp extract and food-grade carrier oil. The extract itself is too thick to be handled with a dropper, so the oil is added to make dosing easier on top of improving its bioavailability. ‘Bioavailability’ refers to the amount of CBD that ends up in your bloodstream. Cannabinoids dissolve both in alcohol and fats, so the addition of carrier oil enhances the efficacy of CBD extracts.

Aside from the carrier, CBD oils may be infused with other ingredients that are used to boost or complement the health benefits of CBD. You can find CBD oil with guarana for morning use, but there are also CBD oils with melatonin, a sleep-enhancing neurotransmitter. If you dislike the flavor of natural CBD oil, you can choose from many flavored versions; popular flavored variations of CBD oil include mint, vanilla, berry, kiwi, and citrus fruits.

When choosing CBD oil, make sure the flavorings are natural, and that the oil doesn’t contain any suspicious additives.

How to Buy CBD Oil?

Don’t have the time to run through the above checklist? This section will help you choose high-quality CBD oil if you’re in a hurry.

Choose Reputable Brands

This may sound like a dead giveaway, but brands with a well-established reputation are more likely to sell quality CBD products than companies coming out of the blue and providing little to no information on how they make their CBD oils.

How can you tell that you’re buying from a trustworthy vendor?

The company should have a clear mission statement written on its website. Moreover, they should provide a detailed insight into their farming, extraction, and testing practices. Every reputable brand also sends its products to third-party laboratories for content analysis.

Speaking of which…

Look for Certificates of Analysis

As mentioned earlier, the certificate of analysis is a document confirming the potency and purity of a CBD product. The content analysis may cover one or several aspects, from the CBD concentration to the cannabinoid and terpene profiles to potential contaminants.

See also  Is cbd oil legal for drug tests

If any impurities or dangerous additives are found during the analysis, the lab report will show it.

Again, never buy from companies that refuse to provide certificates of analysis for their products.

Read User Reviews

This point is closely connected with the first one. Reputable brands usually have many positive user reviews. However, you should look at the source of these testimonies. There are many companies out there that have lots of positive reviews on their websites, but when you check with third-party CBD rankings or expert blogs, you may find that the reviews are biased.

When choosing between different brands and CBD products, always compare user reviews from at least three different sources. Doing so will provide you with a bigger picture of the company and its reputation in the cannabis community.

When to Shop for CBD Online?

The first thought that may come to your mind once you discover the health benefits of CBD oil is “where can I buy CBD oil near me?” After all, CBD is sold virtually everywhere — even at gas stations.

But before you start making errands to find a trustworthy physical store, it’s a good idea to weigh the pros and cons.

Local shops are convenient and easily available — but that’s where the advantages usually end.

When you shop for CBD locally, you rely solely on the employees’ knowledge about the products. This leaves you with limited research options, not to mention a narrow product selection. Local shops usually stock two types of CBD products — much less than online retailers.

A person running a physical storefront must cover certain operational costs, such as electricity bills, rental space, etc. This, in turn, translates into higher product prices.

That’s where online shopping becomes an appealing alternative.

Buying CBD online means you can easily browse and compare different brands and products in the comfort of your home. You don’t need to drive from one shop to another — everything is available with a few clicks in your browser.

Online stores also offer more product types than local vendors. When shopping for CBD online, you can choose from oils, tinctures, capsules, gummies, honey sticks, bath bombs, creams, vape pens, and more. It would be difficult to find a physical store that would offer so many options.

And since online retailers can cut out the middleman, they can offer better prices for their products. You can take advantage of special discounts, coupon codes, reward programs, holiday sales, and bulk pricing to save money on your favorite products.

Choosing the Right CBD Product Type

You can find CBD in many forms, but in this section, we’ll cover the most often picked product types.

As we said, the form of CBD determines the onset, type, and duration of effects. Here’s a brief comparison:

  • CBD Oils – CBD oils are taken under the tongue. You need to measure the desired amount using a glass dropper or atomizer and place it beneath the tongue for up to 60 seconds. From there, the oil absorbs directly into the bloodstream, producing its effects within 15–30 minutes on average.
  • CBD Capsules – capsules contain a hemp extract infused with a carrier oil and covered in a soft gel shell. They don’t require any measurements because every capsule contains a fixed amount of CBD. Since capsules need to pass through the digestive system, the effects have a delayed onset, usually by 30–40 minutes, although, for some people, it may take up to 2 hours until they start feeling a difference.
  • CBD Edibles – similar to regular cannabis edibles, you can find hemp-infused CBD gummies, honey sticks, protein bars, chocolates, and beverages. They are processed by the body in the same way as capsules, which means the effects may be delayed, but they will also last longer since the CBD is released gradually into the bloodstream.
  • CBD Vapes – products like vape pens and cartridges provide the fastest onset of effects, bringing relief within minutes after inhalation. They also offer the highest bioavailability of all consumption methods, ensuring that up to 56% of CBD ends up in your bloodstream.
  • CBD Topicals – topicals are formulated to ease localized discomfort. The CBD doesn’t absorb into the bloodstream, so these products have literally zero bioavailability; instead, the CBD interacts with the CB2 receptors located in the skin. From there, they can signal the endocannabinoid system to promote homeostasis.

Full-spectrum vs Isolate: Which One Should You Choose?

There’s an ongoing debate on which type of CBD oil people should choose: full-spectrum or isolate?

Most users choose full-spectrum CBD due to more predictable dosing and higher efficacy.

Full-spectrum CBD is extracted from the whole plant, so it contains not only CBD but also other cannabinoids and terpenes found in hemp. As mentioned in the previous sections, these compounds work together synergistically, enhancing the benefits of the major cannabinoid. This synergy is known as the “entourage effect,” a term coined by Raphael Mechoulam and further expanded by Dr. Ethan Bud Russo. The entourage effect means that the cannabis compounds work better together than each of them alone.

CBD isolate is pure cannabidiol that has been separated from the other molecules. It’s usually sold as powdered crystals and offers the highest dose of CBD per serving — 990 mg in one gram. It’s also flavorless and odorless, which makes it more versatile than full-spectrum extracts.

However, CBD isolate doesn’t produce the entourage effect, which makes it a less desired option. People typically choose to isolate when they are tested for THC at work — high doses of full-spectrum CBD may trigger a false-positive result for THC — or are allergic to other hemp compounds.

How to Choose CBD Concentration?

CBD concentration is the first figure people look at when they choose between different CBD oils.

There is no one-size-fits-all CBD dosage because everybody is different and reacts differently to CBD. For some people, dosages between 5–10 mg may be sufficient, while others will need upwards of 50 mg to experience a noticeable difference in their well-being.

The rule “the more the merrier” doesn’t work in this case because people may also have different goals with CBD.

This brings us to the next choice.

High vs Low Concentration CBD Oil

Low-concentration CBD oils are usually picked for micro-dosing, which means applying very small doses of CBD throughout the day to maintain stable levels of endocannabinoids. People who’ve just dipped their toes in the subject choose low-potency CBD oils to find the right dosage and assess the cost-efficacy of their product.

High-concentration CBD oils are preferred by users who already have some experience with CBD and know their optimal dosage. When you buy a high-strength oil, you need to pay more for a single purchase, but the product may prove more affordable in the long-run than a less potent option. You can calculate the cost of your CBD oil by taking the total concentration of CBD and dividing it by the product’s volume. The less you pay for one milligram of CBD, the longer your product will go.

Lower doses of CBD oil produce different effects than higher doses. Lower amounts are known to produce invigorating effects that promote focus and reduce stress — a good option for daytime use. Higher doses, in turn, tend to have a sedative effect on the user. When you take high doses of CBD in your routine, low-concentration oils may be cost-prohibitive.

How to Choose CBD Oil: Bottom Line?

Choosing CBD oil for the first time can be a hard nut to crack. Since the market is unregulated, there’s a risk of buying a mislabeled product that will be ineffective and even dangerous for your health.

Research is paramount when it comes to choosing CBD products. You should always check the source of hemp, extraction methods, third-party testing, the company’s transparency, and reputation among CBD users.

Your choice will also depend on the type of CBD, consumption method, and potency; these factors should be suited to your lifestyle preferences and expected effects.

We hope our guide will help you maneuver in this booming space and find a true pearl amidst the sea of mediocre vendors.

How do you choose your CBD oils? Let us know your tips in the comments below!

Best CBD Oil for Pain Relief & Inflammation: Highest Quality Brands On The Market

Over the past three years, CBD oil has become increasingly popular as a health and wellness supplement.

One of the main reasons people are interested in trying CBD oil is because of its pain-killing benefits. We’ll get into the details of how CBD is suggested to help with pain later, along with some suggestions for the best CBD oils for pain and inflammation.

The ability for CBD to help with pain is a significant advantage over conventional pain management options — which often involve addictive and potentially harmful medications. Instead, this natural supplement has very few side effects and an exceptional safety profile — all without compromising on effectiveness.

But how do you choose the right CBD oil for the job?

This is an important question to ask because the truth of the matter is that not all CBD oils work. Many simply contain too little CBD to be of any help, while others contain harmful contaminants like heavy metals, pesticides, or chemical solvents — all of which could add to the pain you’re already experiencing by damaging the sensitive nerve cells around the body.

We’re going to cover all of this in the article below. You’ll learn how to spot a high-quality CBD oil and how current evidence shows CBD to work inside the body.

This is a big topic, so let’s get started with our list of top-rated CBD oils for pain.

Top 10 Best CBD Oil Brands for Pain Management in 2022

Not sure which CBD oil to buy to help with chronic pain? Before we get into the nitty-gritty of how CBD is suggested to work for pain and inflammation, here’s our top 5 list of CBD oils I’ve used myself for back pain.

We’ll also offer some advice on a few ways you can spot a trustworthy CBD vendor even if they didn’t quite make it onto our list.

I’ve been using CBD for over 5 years now and I’ve stumbled upon some stellar companies with top-notch oils and fly-by-night businesses with oils that can’t simply don’t work.

I have a relatively short list of CBD brands that I fully trust and I want to share my choices with you so you can avoid some of the headaches and disappointment I’ve already endured.

Here are my top 10 CBD oil brands for pain:

1. Royal CBD (Best CBD Oil On The Market)

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 250 – 2500 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Mint, Vanilla, Berry
Potency 8.3 – 83.3 mg/mL

Get 15% off all Royal CBD products. Use code “CFAH” at checkout.

Why Royal CBD is My Top Pick:

As skeptical as I am towards the majority of new CBD brands, I decided to give Royal CBD a try because I liked the company’s dedication to quality. I love seeing companies that take what they do seriously.

You can tell right away from the color, flavor, and consistency of the oil that you’re dealing with a product well above average.

This oil is cheaper than most of the other premium CBD oils I’ve tried, comes in a full range of potencies, and uses some of the best full-spectrum hemp extracts I’ve ever seen. I’ve heard friends using this brand for quite some time and decided to give it a try for myself — so I ordered a few bottles in different strengths.

After taking the Royal CBD’s 2500mg full-spectrum CBD oil for just over a week, I noticed an improvement in my back pain. There was a time when I had serious problems falling asleep because of the sharp pains in my back that seemed to intensify whenever I laid down to fall asleep. It was a nightmare. I’d lay awake for hours changing positions to try and find a spot that didn’t leave me writhing in discomfort.

With this oil, my experience went far beyond what I expected. Not only did it help ease the pain, but my overall quality of sleep improved. I mean, I didn’t sleep longer but I began to wake up rested and with a clear head.

My favorite combination for this particular oil is the vanilla in the 1000 mg bottle. This is the largest potency option currently offered by Royal CBD and has the best value overall. I took the oil twice per day, once in the morning when I woke up, and again in the evening before bed. One bottle of the 1000 mg CBD oil lasted me about a month.

  • Sourced from US-grown organic hemp
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Contains the full spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes
  • Available in 4 different strengths
  • Up to 2500mg of CBD per bottle
  • Lab-tested for potency and purity
  • Great natural flavors (no aftertaste and comes in multiple flavor options)
  • Free shipping within the USA
  • Newer brand on the market that only sells online, no physical presence

2. Gold Bee (Best Organic CBD Oil)

  • Premium Colorado-grown hemp
  • CO2 extraction
  • Contains full-spectrum CBD
  • Delicious kiwi flavor
  • Sweetened with organic honey
  • Lab-tested for potency and purity
  • Only one flavored option available
  • No high-strength oils (yet)

What I Like About Gold Bee:

I honestly believe Gold Bee makes the best organic CBD products out there. The brand combines premium Colorado-grown hemp with organic honey sourced from the Brazillian Rainforest. While Gold Bee offers a modest selection of oils — with up to 1200 mg of CBD per bottle — the formula is spot-on when it comes to the quality of ingredients. I’m totally not going to complain about the potency, as my back pain and sleep quality got better than with some high-strength oils I’ve tried in the past. Considering the quality of these products, they actually come at a bargain price. If you want to try other formats from Gold Bee, you can choose between its high-strength capsules and CBD-infused honey.

3. CBDPure (Runner Up)

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 100 – 600 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 1.6 – 10 mg/mL
What I Like About CBDPure CBD Oil:

I love how transparent this company is. If I were judging companies solely by their transparency level, CBDPure would have scored the second place, right after Royal CBD. The company provides all the details about each stage of production when making this CBD oil. You can find all the third-party lab test results for each batch on the product page — something we’ve come to expect from any high-quality CBD company.

What really makes this company stand out is its incredible satisfaction guarantee. If you order the product and decide it wasn’t working for you, simply send it back and get a full refund. This satisfaction guarantee extends over 3 whole months — which is about three times longer than the industry average.

I keep a bottle or two of CBDPure oil in my medicine cabinet for achy moments after a run or hike with the kids.

The only real downside to this oil is the potency — which comes in denominations of 1.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL. This is suitable for more minor symptoms, but may not be enough for people with heavy CBD demands.

  • Sourced from Colorado-grown organic hemp
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Tested for the cannabinoid content and purity in a third-party lab
  • Rock-solid 90-day return policy
  • Narrow product range
  • Low potency
  • They don’t ship to every state (i.e. Louisiana, Indiana, Arkansas, Kansas)
See also  Cbd oil dosage for alcohol withdrawal

4. HempBombs

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 300 – 4000 mg
Available Flavors Unflavored, Acai Berry, Orange Creamsicle, Peppermint, Watermelon
Potency 10 – 133.3 mg/mL
What I Like About HempBombs:

I used HempBombs CBD isolate-based hemp oil for quite some time before switching to full-spectrum CBD oil and in my opinion, this is the best brand when it comes to CBD isolates. Their products contain 99% pure CBD and ZERO THC.

Now don’t get me wrong, CBD isolates are great, they offer consistent doses of CBD, contain 0% THC, and are generally cheaper than their full-spectrum counterparts. In most cases, I like using a full-spectrum extract like Royal CBD oil because of something called the entourage effect — which is a concept highlighting the phenomenon where cannabinoids like CBD tend to work better when other hemp-derived compounds are also present.

In isolates, the only cannabinoid present is CBD.

HempBombs CBD oil is available in five different strengths — from 300mg to 4000mg per bottle. The CBD is added in the form of a 99% pure isolate — which means there’s going to be virtually no traceable amounts of any other cannabinoids, including THC, CBC, CBG, or CBN.

You can also buy these oils in different flavors. Hemp Bombs often adds new flavors to the list, but my all-time personal favorite is the Acai berry. It’s not too sweet but adds a really pleasant flavor to the otherwise bland CBD and MCT oil formula.

  • Sourced from 100% certified organic hemp from European farms
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Completely THC-free
  • Tested in third-party laboratories for purity and potency
  • Available in 5 separate strengths
  • Up to 4000mg of CBD per bottle
  • Lacks the synergistic effects from other cannabinoids
  • The highest potencies are overkill for most users
  • Uses synthetic flavoring agents

5. CBDistillery

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 250 – 5000 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 8.3 – 166 mg/mL
What I Like About CBDistillery:

CBDistillery is now one of the largest CBD companies in North America. The company began in 2016 as a legacy brand for Balanced Health Botanicals.

Over the years, CBDistillery has had the chance to really dial-in its CBD oil formula. The company now sells its CBD oil in two formats — “full-spectrum” and “THC-free.” The THC-free option is great for people who want to benefit from the synergy of CBD and other cannabinoids but without bringing any THC whatsoever into their system.

Even the full-spectrum option contains less than 0.3% THC — which is well below the amount needed to cause any psychoactive effects. These oils are both completely non-psychoactive.

You can choose between five different strengths, starting at 250mg up to 5000mg of CBD per bottle. This covers just about every range of potencies you would ever need. We recommend opting for the higher potency options because they have the best value overall. The higher potency you purchase, the further your dollar gets you.

The more potent options also las the longest because you need smaller amounts of the oil each time to get the desired dose of CBD.

I tried the 1000mg bottle to keep myself calm during the first few months after giving birth to my first son and I must admit it helped me maintain my sanity during that time. I found it to have a remarkable calming effect on the body and mind.

  • Available as full-spectrum CBD or pure CBD oil (THC-free)
  • 5 strengths to choose from
  • Carries up to 33.3 mg of CBD per mL (in the 1000 mg bottle)
  • Excellent value CBD oil
  • The hemp isn’t certified organic
  • No flavor options available
  • The company website is clunky and hard to navigate

6. NuLeaf Naturals

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 240 – 4850 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 48.5 mg/mL
What I Like About NuLeaf Naturals

Nuleaf Naturals is one of the most popular CBD companies in the United States — most likely related to how long the company has been in the business of selling CBD. Nuleaf naturals were one of the first CBD companies to enter the mainstream market.

Despite the companies longstanding reputation, Nuleaf Naturals only sells one CBD oil. When you go to the website you’ll find a few different options, including a pet oil — but it’s important to understand that these are all the exact same full-spectrum extract, the only difference is the bottle sizes.

We love the simplicity of Nuleaf Naturals product lineup. The oils come with a decent potency of around 48 mg/mL, and just about every bottle size you can imagine. This makes it easy for everybody to find a product that works for them regardless of the budget.

With that said, if you have the cash, we highly recommend getting the larger bottle sizes in order to get the best value for your money.

You can choose between five different sizes:

  • Sourced from organic Colorado-grown hemp
  • Extracted using supercritical CO2
  • Made from a full-spectrum hemp extract
  • More expensive than the other brands in this ranking
  • Narrow product range

7. Charlotte’s Web

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 200 – 1800 mg
Available Flavors Mint Chocolate, Lemon Twist, Orange Blossom, Olive Oil
Potency 7 – 60 mg/mL

About Charlotte’s Web:

Charlotte’s Web is one of the pioneers in the American CBD industry. Established by the Stanley Brothers, the company has coined a reputation of a trustworthy manufacturer by helping now late Charlotte Figi with her treatment-resistant epilepsy. Although the company has recently received a warning letter from the FDA due to their health claims, they still have many faithful customers and a massive number of positive reviews on the web.

Charlotte’s Web CBD oil comes in several potencies: 200 mg, 500 mg, 1500 mg, and 1800 mg of CBD per bottle. The highest strength offers 60 mg of full-spectrum CBD per milliliter. There are two bottle sizes to choose from: 30 mL and 100 mL; Charlotte’s Web also has flavored variants of its CBD oil, including Lemon Twist, Orange Blossom, Mint Chocolate, and Olive Oil.

What could the company do better?

First off, they could change their extraction method because they use ethanol, which is less efficient than CO2 extraction. Secondly, and most importantly, the suspension in olive oil makes them taste a bit bitter — even in the flavored versions.

Pros:

  • One of the most reputable brands on the market
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Delicious flavored versions
  • Up to 1800 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Available in two sizes: 30 mL and 100 mL
  • Third-party tested for potency and purity

Cons:

  • Non-organic hemp
  • Ethanol extraction
  • Suspension in olive oil (bitter taste)
  • The company received a warning letter from the FDA in the past due to inappropriate health claims

8. cbdMD

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 300 – 7500 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Berry, Orange, Mint
Potency 10 – 250 mg/mL

About cbdMD:

cbdMD is another popular manufacturer that offers a wide range of CBD extracts, from tinctures to gummies to capsules, bath bombs, topicals, sleep aids, and pet products.

The brand offers a wide range of pure CBD oils, with up to 7500 mg of CBD per bottle. The highest potency comes with a whopping dose of 200 mg of pure CBD suspended in MCT oil for higher bioavailability and a smoother flavor. cbdMD also has three flavored CBD oils: Berry, Orange, and Mint.

Despite an impressive potency range, cbdMD uses broad-spectrum CBD in their products, which doesn’t evoke the full entourage effect. The higher potency may not necessarily mean better results in this case.

The company has high transparency standards; not only does cbdMD broadly describe their activity from farming to testing, but they also provide batch-specific certificates of analysis for their products, including the results for potency and common contaminants like pesticides, heavy metals, and residual solvents.

Pros:

  • US-grown, non-GMO hemp
  • CO2 extraction
  • THC-free
  • Up to 7500 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Batch-specific certificates of analysis

Cons:

  • Limited entourage effect due to the lack of THC
  • Most people don’t need such high doses of CBD in their routine

9. Medterra

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 500 – 3000 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Citrus, Mint Chocolate
Potency 16 – 100 mg/mL

About Medterra:

Medterra is a small craft company from California. The brand offers premium CBD oils in different spectra: full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and isolates. The potency of these products ranges between 500 mg and 3000 mg of CBD per bottle, which is a standard range. On top of the unflavored version, there are two flavored options: Citrus and Chocolate

Medterra prides itself on making the real full-spectrum CBD because each bottle of its full-spectrum CBD oil comes with 2 mg of THC. However, these products are only legal in the states that have legalized higher amounts of THC for recreational use. So, if you want to buy the company’s products in all 50 states, your options are limited to broad-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate. These provide more CBD per bottle — upwards of 1000 mg.

The entire Medterra’s product range is tested in a third-party laboratory for their CBD content and safety.

Pros:

  • Premium-grade CBD oils
  • Up to 3000 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Available as full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and isolates
  • Lab tested for potency and purity

Cons:

  • The “real” full-spectrum CBD oil isn’t available in all states
  • Some of the lab reports indicate higher CBD levels than stated on the bottle
  • No discounts for returning customers

10. Joy Organics

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 450 – 900 mg
Available Flavors Tranquil Mint, Fresh Lime, Summer Lemon
Potency 15 – 30 mg/mL

About Joy Organics:

Joy Organics holds the reputation of one of the most reputable CBD vendors in the industry. The company was established by a woman named Joy Smith, who has been using CBD oil to manage her problems with pain and sleep. After experiencing the benefits of CBD first-hand, she has decided to share her passion for cannabis with other health-conscious consumers.

The brand sells a range of broad-spectrum CBD products from certified organic hemp. They have many positive reviews all over the Internet; they also haven’t received any warning letter regarding health claims from the FDA — unlike many companies in this space (even the veterans like Charlotte’s Web).

The Joy Organics CBD oil features a broad-spectrum CBD formula in a modest potency range, from 450 to 900 mg of CBD per bottle. You can choose from three refreshing flavors: Summer Lemon, Fresh Lime, and Tranquil Mint. The strongest version of the Joy Organics CBD oil contains 30 mg of broad-spectrum CBD in every milliliter, which is a standard dose for most people who take CBD oil for daily supplementation.

In 2018, one of the company’s flavored CBD oils was found to contain a fungicide that is commonly sprayed on citrus fruit during independent lab testing. Fortunately, Joy Organics recalled the product shortly after this incident and implemented a new third-party testing system to make sure there are no flaws in the end product.

Pros:

  • Non-GMO, US-grown hemp
  • Supercritical CO2 extraction
  • Broad-spectrum CBD
  • THC-free
  • Delicious flavors

Cons:

  • A bit expensive
  • No high-strength oils

CBD Oil for Pain Management: Complete Guide for Beginners

Now that we’ve covered a few CBD oil options that are going to provide the best value for your money, let’s discuss how CBD is suggested to support chronic pain in the first place. We’ll also cover some of the most common ways people are using CBD oil for pain.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD stands for cannabidiol _ it’s one of the primary active ingredients in the cannabis plant. It’s completely non-psychoactive and offers a wide range of benefits to the human body.

CBD oil is a combination of a CBD extract, with a carrier oil to help dissolve and store the CBD. Most CBD oils use carrier oils like MCT oil, or hemp seed oil — which is then combined with CBD isolate, or full-spectrum hemp extract rich in CBD and other similar cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids like CBD are fat-soluble — which means they dissolve when mixed with oil, but won’t dissolve in water. By dissolving these compounds in an oil solution, the CBD becomes much easier to store and use. Instead of measuring out micrograms of CBD crystals or hemp resin, all you need to do is measure oil to get your dose of CBD. This can be done using a simple dropper that comes standard with most CBD oils.

Because of their ease of use, and long shelf-life, CBD oils have become the go-to method of using CBD and other hemp extracts.

You can also opt-out to use CBD-infused gummies if you wanted something discreetly, read our in-depth review on CBD Gummies to understand better.

How Does CBD Work?

Cannabis has been used for managing pain and inflammation for thousands of years.

The earliest records of the medical use of the herb date back to ancient China when the emperor Shen-Nung placed it among other therapeutic substances in the Chinese pharmacopeia (1). The leaves were wrapped around an injury as a poultice to reduce pain and discomfort, and reverse swelling and bruising.

Despite being a known medicine for a long time, scientists have only recently begun to unlock the mechanisms cannabis uses to achieve its important pain-killing benefits.

Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in 1992, CBD and other phytocannabinoids have been in the spotlight of modern medicine.

The endocannabinoid system is one of the most important neurochemical networks in the human body (2). It works by interacting with the endocannabinoid system — a series of hormones and receptors that help regulate over a dozen core processes in the human body. The active compounds in the cannabis plant are very similar to the naturally-produced hormones involved with our endocannabinoid system.

By interacting with the endocannabinoid system, CBD and other cannabinoids are able to modulate several key processes, such as:

  • Appetite
  • Immune function
  • Memory
  • Mood
  • Stress
  • Sensory perception (including pain)
  • Inflammation
  • Reproductive health
  • Nerve function
  • Sleep

How Can CBD Reduce Pain Transmission?

How does all of this relate to pain? The answer lies in the way pain is transmitted to the brain.

When we injure ourselves, cells in the immediate vicinity begin releasing compounds that trigger a cascade of inflammation and sensory activation — which is what triggers the pain transmission.

The pain signal is then sent to the spinal cord through a network of nerves distributed all around the body.

Once in the spine, the pain signal is sent through a gateway (opioid and vanilloid receptors) designed to limit the amount of signal that ends up in the brain for processing. This works like a border crossing. The border security decides whether or not you’re allowed to enter and what you can take with you.

In the context of pain, these gateways can limit the amount of pain signal that continues across the border to the brain. If more pain signal is allowed to pass, the brain perceives more pain. If the pain is stopped at the border, the brain perceives less pain.

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Conventional pain medications work by activating the opioid receptors acting as a key gateway for pain transmission to the brain.

CBD has a similar effect, but through a different receptor is known as the vanilloid receptors. These vanilloid receptors are tasked with regulating a specific form of pain caused by either heat or inflammation. CBD has been reported to modulate this vanilloid receptor — leading to a reduction in the pain signals sent to the brain from inflammatory causes such as arthritis, muscle damage, or infection, to name a few.

CBD has other ways it can limit pain transmission as well:

  • CBD may reduce inflammation, limiting the initial cause of pain in the body
  • CBD acts as an antioxidant, helping the body resist and recover from damage
  • CBD relaxes muscle fibers, reducing pain caused by muscle spasms and tightness

More research is needed to fully understand how CBD and other active cannabinoids can block pain. Every year dozens of new research papers are published in an attempt to paint a clear picture of how CBD works, how to get the most benefit from the supplement, and what its limitations are.

(Pain Transmission Pathway to the Brain)

Choosing CBD Oil Companies: How to Differentiate the Good From the Bad

CBD has become a lucrative business. Companies are selling a myriad of different CBD oils and other products in an attempt to cash in on the new health trend. This means there are a lot of excellent products coming to market, but it also means there’s a lot of trash as well. It’s important as a CBD user that you understand what makes a CBD oil good, and what makes it bad so you can avoid wasting your money, or worse — using CBD oils that contain harmful or damaging ingredients.

Let’s cover the most important points to remember when shopping for CBD oil online or in-store.

1. Check the Hemp Source

The source of the hemp used to make the oil is vitally important when it comes to determining which CBD oils are the best. The main reason comes down to the botany of the hemp plant itself.

Hemp is a bio-accumulator — which means it has the tendency to absorb compounds from the soil and accumulate them in its leaves, stems, and roots. The deep taproots of the hemp plant stretch far beneath the soil, pulling out and storing all the heavy metals and other elements it can find in the soil.

This aspect is in part why hemp is so nutritious, but it also means that plants grown in contaminated soils often contain contaminants that can be harmful to your health. Some of the worst offenders are heavy metals — which can build up in the body over time and lead to severe long-term health effects.

You want to avoid consuming heavy metals at all costs.

Poorly grown hemp could contain heavy metals, as well as other contaminants like mycotoxins, or pesticide residues that will end up in the CBD oil after all the processing is complete.

For this reason, it’s important to purchase CBD oil from companies that account for this effect. Only buy from company’s that make an effort to source hemp from organic farms, and take measures to assess every batch of hemp that enters the facility to determine heavy metal, microbial contaminant, and pesticide contamination.

The best hemp sources tend to come from states like Oregon, Colorado, or Alabama, as well as neighboring countries like Canada or Scandinavian countries. These places are all known for having high standards for hemp cultivation, and clean soils.

2. Look for CO2 Extracted Products

Once the company has the hemp, they need to extract the CBD from it. You can do this in many different ways using solvents like ethanol, methanol, hexane, ether, or butane. All of these solvents work to strip the active compounds from the hemp plant and can then be evaporated to leave behind a pure CBD-rich resin.

however, there’s a problem with these solvents.

Even in professional lab settings, it can be very difficult to remove all traces of these solvents from the final product. Most of these solvents are toxic to the human body, even in trace amounts.

Therefore, the best companies are using another method to strop the active ingredients from the starting hemp material. This method uses CO2 placed under high pressure. the high pressure and temperature control convert the CO2 into a phase that’s neither liquid nor gas. This special state is referred to as being supercritical.

Supercritical CO2 acts just like any other solvent, but with one key benefit — as soon as the pressure is relieved, the gas evaporates completely, leaving behind no harmful chemical residues.

when shopping for CBD oil, it’s ideal to look for a company that uses supercritical CO2 to extract the CBD rather than the toxic solvents mentioned above. Supercritical CO2 is very expensive and highly technical — but usually produces a far superior product in the end.

If a company is using harsh solvents like butane or propane (or they don’t tell you anything about their extraction methods), it’s a sign that you should look for another brand.

3. Ask for Third-Party Lab Reports

Every company has the option to send their products to an independent lab or third-party testing.

These laboratory tests check for the entire cannabinoid profile of the extract and are able to detect over 200 common contaminants.

Before a CBD product becomes available for sale, it should pass the laboratory test for potency and purity. If any inconsistencies are shown between different batches of the same product, the company should rework it and send it for analysis once again.

High-quality CBD companies will continually send each batch of product to a lab with no affiliation to the company (called a third-party or independent lab) for testing. These results are then published publicly on the website for customers to view.

The best companies will take this even one step further — adding a database and batch numbers on every bottle of CBD oil so you can view the results for your specific bottle of oil. Third-party testing is now an industry standard.

Always buy your CBD oil from companies that show third-party lab reports on their website. Only then will you know what’s inside the bottle before you even order a product. If the company is producing CBD oil that’s as high quality, as they say, there should be nothing to hide in these lab tests and they should be listed publicly on the company website. If you can’t find them on the site, you can ask customer service for these as well.

If these tests don’t exist, or you can’t track them down from the website or customer service — it’s best to avoid this company and move on to another that takes this important step seriously.

What the Research Says About Using CBD Oil for Pain:

Understanding how CBD works is no simple task. This compound is incredibly complex — working through a number of unrelated receptors around the body, interacting with enzymes, cell membranes, and various other cell structures. This makes studying CBD very difficult.

Nevertheless, there have been thousands of research papers published on medical marijuana — seeking to understand the interaction between cannabinoids like CBD and the human body. A lot of this research specifically focused on the effects of CBD on various forms and causes of pain. Let’s explore some of the results this research has yielded in the context of pain management.

1. CBD Oil for Chronic Back & Nerve Pain

The painkilling properties of cannabidiol have been most thoroughly studied in animal models, as well as a handful of human clinical trials.

One of the best studies we have available on the topic is a meta-analysis published in 2017. This analysis looked at 24 different clinical trials involving 1,334 patients over several years and demographics. These studies all used various forms of cannabis for treating chronic pain. The analysis reports that many of these studies showed a reduction in chronic pain scores by 50% or more (3) — suggesting the cannabis plant to be a potential treatment for chronic pain.

Another clinical trial looked at the effects of a combination of CBD to THC in the treatment of intractable cancer pain. This study found that twice as many people in the treatment group given CBD and THC had a 30% or more reduction in pain symptoms at the conclusion of the trial (6).

Even though more clinical trials on humans are needed to gauge how CBD affects specific forms of pain or other conditions, scientists believe the efficacy of CBD in treating chronic pain is related to its anti-inflammatory effects (3).

2. CBD Oil for Arthritis

CBD has had a lot of research as a potential alternative to prescription and non-prescription pain medications commonly used for alleviating arthritis pain.

Researchers have found a clear link between the endocannabinoid system and the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease associated with chronic pain and inflammation (4).

One of the key areas CBD is thought to support osteoarthritis specifically is through the effects on an enzyme known as 5-lipoxygenase — AKA 5-LOX. CBD has been shown to inhibit this enzyme (7), which converts fatty acids into pro-inflammatory compounds. These inflammatory messengers have been shown to be a key component in the underlying inflammation involved with osteoarthritis (8).

By reducing the underlying causes of arthritis pain, CBD is thought to reduce the overall burden of pain from the condition over the long term.

3. CBD and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Pain

Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, CBD is a potent neuroprotective — which is how experts believe CBD is able to relieve debilitating MS pain, —which affects roughly 50–70% of patients diagnosed with the condition.

A study conducted on animals at Cajan Institute tested the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD on mice the researchers wanted to find out if CBD can provide a reversed inflammatory response on those cells. After ten days, the researchers found a reduction in inflammatory markers with a rodent encephalitis model designed to imitate the impact MS has on the body (5).

More research is needed to see exactly how these effects are translated to humans. Currently, there are 23 clinical trials currently underway, or planned within the next 12 months seeking to explore the effects of CBD on MS.

4. CBD Oil in Sports: Injuries & Muscle Endurance

Cannabidiol can be applied in two different ways when it comes to pain and physical activities. For example, when you administer CBD orally in the form of oil as a post-workout, it helps alleviate the muscle inflammation that troubles athletes once they go beyond the edge again.

If, however, you’re suffering from an injury, it’s best to apply CBD topically. Its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties allow the cannabinoid to relieve pain and improve regeneration capacities.

Does CBD Have Any Side Effects?

The main reason why parents are so enthusiastic about CBD is that this cannabinoid is completely non-intoxicating, doesn’t cause addiction, and has only a few mild side effects when taken at excessive doses.

Research shows that even doses up to one and a half grams have no severe side effects on human health (9).

Despite being a notoriously safe supplement, there are some side effects of using CBD in high doses. Let’s cover the most common side effects people report from using CBD:

  • Anxiety
  • Brain fog
  • Reduced appetite
  • Mood changes
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Drowsiness or fatigue
  • Dry mouth
  • Nausea and vomiting

The most common side effect by far, like other forms of cannabis, is dry mouth. This is best managed by taking your CBD oil along with some juice like pineapple or orange juice.

Another common side effect is lowered blood pressure, which may trigger another unwanted reaction — lightheadedness. This side effect is important to consider if you suffer from low blood pressure already or are taking blood pressure-lowering medications.

Always consult your doctor before using CBD or other cannabis extracts if you’re taking prescription medications or have underlying medical conditions.

In Summary: Buying CBD Oil For Pain

As CBD becomes more popular around the world, scientists are publishing new research on cannabinoids on a near-weekly basis. As time goes on, experts are mapping out the complicated mechanisms CBD and other hemp derivatives are using to support both acute and chronic pain of all different origins.

Here are the main takeaways from the current research:

  • CBD inhibits inflammation at several different levels
  • CBD offers antioxidant support
  • CBD may relieve muscle tension and inflammation
  • CBD interacts with the vanilloid receptors in the brain responsible for regulating inflammatory pain transmission

When it comes to pain, CBD appears to target the cause of the problem instead of just masking its symptoms.

Getting relief on so many levels and without any harmful side effects or risk of addiction is the reason why CBD oil has become so popular over the past half a decade.

I hope this guide has managed to clear up any confusion regarding CBD oil and pain, and given you the insight necessary to find the right CBD oil for the job.

Have you tried CBD oil for chronic pain? Did you feel any difference? Let me know in the comments below!

References:

  1. Brand, E. J., & Zhao, Z. (2017). Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?. Frontiers in pharmacology, 8, 108.
  2. Alger B. E. (2013). Getting high on the endocannabinoid system. Cerebrum: the Dana forum on brain science, 2013, 14.
  3. Aviram, J., Samuelly-Leichtag, G. (2017) Efficacy of Cannabis-Based Medicines for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Pain Physician, 20(6), E755-E796.
  4. Bruni, N., Della Pepa, C., Oliaro-Bosso, S., Pessione, E., Gastaldi, D., & Dosio, F. (2018). Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(10), 2478.
  5. Elliott, D. M., Singh, N., Nagarkatti, M., & Nagarkatti, P. S. (2018). Cannabidiol Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Multiple Sclerosis Through Induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 1782.
  6. Johnson, J. R., Burnell-Nugent, M., Lossignol, D., Ganae-Motan, E. D., Potts, R., & Fallon, M. T. (2010). Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Journal of pain and symptom management, 39(2), 167-179.
  7. Takeda, S., Usami, N., Yamamoto, I., & Watanabe, K. (2009). Cannabidiol-2′, 6′-dimethyl ether, a cannabidiol derivative, is a highly potent and selective 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Drug Metabolism and Disposition.
  8. Lascelles, B. D. X., King, S., Roe, S., Marcellin‐Little, D. J., & Jones, S. (2009). Expression and activity of COX‐1 and 2 and 5‐LOX in joint tissues from dogs with naturally occurring coxofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Journal of orthopaedic research, 27(9), 1204-1208.Chicago
Nina Julia

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

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