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Cbd oil for cats ibs

FAQs about CBD Use in Pets

A: Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a cannabinoid produced by the plant Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana. After many anecdotal reports of CBD’s potential health benefits, studies are now underway to look at the potential benefits of CBD for controlling pain from conditions such as osteoarthritis, calming anxious pets, and as a possible treatment for epilepsy in dogs. CBD is being used by many pet owners today, so it’s essential to know enough about it to discuss the potential risks of use.

Q: Is CBD psychoactive?

A: No; however, there are several possible reasons a dog who has ingested CBD may look high:

  1. The product that the pet ingested contains both THC and CBD. There are many products on the market, some even labeled for use in pets, that contain both CBD and THC at varying concentrations, so check the labels or look up the product online to see what’s in it.
  2. The pet ingested enough of a CBD product to cause THC toxicity. Hemp can legally contain up to 0.3% THC, so if a pet ingests a large amount of a hemp-based CBD product, mild THC toxicity can occur.
  3. The product has not undergone quality assurance testing and contains THC.
  4. The dog also found some marijuana or THC edibles. Ask about any other cannabis products in the home.

Q: What are the most common signs reported in pets after the ingestion of CBD products?

A: Vomiting, lethargy, inappetence, and diarrhea are the most common clinical signs reported. Ataxia can occasionally occur with large ingestions.

Q: How do I treat these cases?

A: Most cases need no treatment, aside from symptomatic care for gastrointestinal upset if it occurs. If it’s a large dose, where the THC content might be a factor, mild sedation, urinary incontinence, hyperesthesia, and ataxia could develop, and the pet should be confined to prevent injury from misadventure. If you see significant signs that look like THC toxicity, treat the pet in front of you and provide IV fluid support, anti-nausea medication, and good nursing care as needed.

Q: Is there anything special I need to know about pet hemp treat overdoses?

A: Products sold as “soft chews” can have an osmotic effect when large amounts of chews are ingested and pull fluid from the body into the gastrointestinal tract. In mild cases, this can lead to diarrhea and dehydration. In severe cases, hypernatremia, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, and acidosis can occur. Aggressive fluid therapy, while monitoring hydration status and electrolytes in these pets, is critical.

Q: What about interactions with other medications? Any long-term effects to be concerned about?

A: CBD is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 and has the potential to affect the metabolism of other drugs. While this appears to be of minimal clinical significance in most cases, this may be important when CBD is used in a pet for seizure control. Doses of other anticonvulsants may need to be adjusted. Remember that owners may discontinue anticonvulsants on their own if they feel that CBD is controlling their pet’s seizures, so this is an important discussion to have.

CBD has also been shown to cause dose-dependent elevations in liver enzymes in various safety studies. This has not been noted in acute overdose situations but could be a concern in pets taking CBD long-term. Monitoring liver enzymes and total bilirubin in these pets is recommended.

How CBD Can Help IBD: Getting Back to Normal

Dogs and cats who have continuous inflammation in their bowels are often diagnosed with IBD or Inflammatory Bowel Disease. This condition generally causes excessive vomiting, diarrhea, and/or weight loss . IBD is diagnosed by collecting tissue samples from your pet’s intestinal tract using ultrasound, but surgery or endoscopy (looking inside with a microscope) may be necessary in cases where the veterinary professional needs an extra view.

Regardless of how it’s described, your pet is in pain if she is diagnosed with IBD. According to Dr. Zac Pilossoph, “IBD is similar to a condition in humans known as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Some pets are responsive to diet changes whereas others are not. Those who are not responsive to diet may be recommended long-term antibiotics and/or steroids by conventional veterinarians. However, in my experience, many of these pets can be helped with minimal long-term pharmaceuticals.”

Table of Contents

What is IBD?

When a dog or cat has IBD, their bowels and gastrointestinal tract are inflamed (1).

There are two types of IBD in pets. Their names can be a bit overwhelming but try not to focus on the actual names; we are simply educating you so you’re aware of the two kinds. They are Lymphoplasmacytic IBD and Eosinophilic IBD. Lymphoplasmacytic IBD is the most common affecting the small intestine, stomach, and colon of your pet.

What are the Symptoms in Dogs and Cats?

The symptoms of IBD are similar in dogs and cats. Some of the most common include (1):

  • Frequent diarrhea: diarrhea with blood or mucous shows there is a problem in the large intestine
  • Constipation: Constipation is most often seen in Manx and older cats
  • Vomiting: Vomiting may lead veterinarians to believe there is an obstruction somewhere in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Weight loss: Weight loss occurs due to the lack of absorption of nutrients. There may not be a sufficient amount of nutrients being taken in by the body.
  • Decrease or Increase in Appetite: An increased appetite may mean your cat or dog is not receiving nutrients to their body and may be indicative of an underlying health condition like Cushing’s Disease . A decreased appetite may be indicative of pain, nausea, or general discomfort.
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal pain and spasms

These symptoms can vary in duration, and your pet may only have one or two symptoms.

If you suspect that your pet is experiencing these symptoms, you should seek veterinary help. It is possible for the inflammation to cause partial or fully undigested food into the gut, which may reach the bloodstream, which is why diagnosis is so important.

What causes IBD?

Inflammatory Bowel Disease can be found in both dogs and cats and with the ultimate cause being unknown. Research has found there are certain items that contribute to IBD including (1):

    1. Bacteria in the Gut: Fecal cultures can find bad (pathogenic) bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract
    2. Lowered Immune System
    3. Parasites: Ova, parasite, and giardia tests are conducted to look for common parasitic diseases. Inflammatory Bowel Disease can be found in both dogs and cats and with the ultimate cause being unknown. Research has found there are certain items that contribute to IBD including (1):

    Genetics: It could be in their genes. Just as every person is different, every pet is different, as is their genetic makeup

    Is IBD the same thing as IBS?

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) have different causes but have very similar results.

    IBS is not caused by inflammation but is caused most commonly by stress and anxiety . These are often used interchangeably, and treatments may be similar (for example, CBD can help lower stress and anxiety and can be a positive treatment option for both conditions), but they are not the same.

    How can I treat IBD?

    Since there is no definitive answer to treating IBD in our pets, the overall goal of veterinarians is to determine what can be done to reduce the symptoms of IBD. Finding a diet a dog or cat can live a relatively normal life with is the key here.

    Feeding a fresh, whole food diet with relatively few ingredients is key for dogs with IBD. Working up to a fresh diet with more ingredients is the goal, but keeping it as simple (while balanced) is key. Look for a certified canine nutritionist to help you formulate a nutrient-dense, anti-inflammatory fresh food diet so you are sure to keep macronutrient ratios in check.

    Does CBD help?

    One of the safest and best options available is CBD for dogs and cats . CBD is anti-inflammatory and works with the endocannabinoid system to restore homeostasis (balance in the body). The ECS is now known to be involved in a wide variety of bodily functions, including (but not limited to) sleep, mood, memory, reproduction, and appetite. In addition, the Endocannabinoid System is in control of:

    • Digestion and appetite
    • Inflammation and other immune system responses
    • Mood, memory, and learning
    • Muscle formation
    • Development of the bones
    • Hepatic function
    • Stress

    The ECS’ ability to improve communication inside and between the body’s systems and restore something called homeostasis is one of the key reasons it affects so many areas of the body.

    CBD and the Gut

    The gut microbiota is where much of our health and well-being, as well as that of our pets, is determined. When it comes to healing your pet, a balanced gut is always the most important factor to consider; it all begins with the microbiome.

    A microbiome is a group of beneficial bacteria, fungi, and other species found in humans and pets. There is a microbiome in everything. The gut microbiome is beneficial to the nervous system, immune system, and even skin and hair health. The intestinal microbiota affects the brain as well.

    Full Spectrum Hemp Extract CBD Oil has been shown to promote a stable gut microbiota in pets with gastrointestinal problems. It has been shown to minimize inflammation, including inflammation in the gut, and when combined with a healthy diet, it can help to avoid tumors, IBD, and other common problems in the future.

    CBD and Inflammation

    Inflammation is at the root of many problems. Inflammation in the body is linked to allergies, anxiety, chronic pain, autoimmune disease, and IBD, to name a few. Unlike nonselective NSAIDs, CBD reduces pain by enabling the body’s CB2 receptors (which interfere with pain and inflammation) to generate neurotransmitters called endocannabinoids.

    According to research , “migraine, fibromyalgia, IBS and related conditions display common clinical, biochemical and pathophysiological patterns that suggest an underlying clinical endocannabinoid deficiency that may be suitably treated with cannabinoid medicines.”

    CBD and the Immune System

    THC and CBD are cannabinoids that interact with the ECS to help the immune system achieve its objective of balance. Cannabis contains not only CBD and THC, but also over 120 other cannabinoids (as many as possible in a full-spectrum product ), terpenes, and flavonoids, all of which contribute to the body’s overall health.

    THC binds to the CB2 receptor, activating it (turning it on) and causing an anti-inflammatory reaction, according to studies. As a result, THC and CBD are classified as an immunosuppressant and are used to manage autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease and Multiple Sclerosis. CBD inhibits T-cells and decreases cytokine production, making it a well-known immunosuppressive agent .

    No Prescription Needed

    Unlike many medications for IBD, Full Spectrum Hemp Extract CBD Oil does not require a prescription nor does it require extensive, costly, stressful visits to the veterinarian to refill. There are also no negative side effects when using CBD. Some medications can treat IBD but may cause new problems in the liver or kidneys. However, the only side effect associated with CBD is that your pet may become a little bit sleepy.

    Administering CBD

    If you have decided to continue the journey with CBD, it’s important to understand how to administer it. For the fastest and most thorough absorption, lift your dog or cat’s lip and apply it directly to her gums. This results in CBD connecting with the bloodstream quicker. If you add CBD oil to food, it may not be as effective and will take significantly longer to make its way to the gastrointestinal tract. Check out this page for more info about dosing and administration .

    To learn more about how to safely use CBD to combat a variety of conditions, visit www.cbddoghealth.com or www.yournaturaldog.com .

    Sources:

    (1) Dr. Gary Richter. 2017. The Ultimate Pet Health Guide. Book.

    (2) Hand, M.S., et.al., eds, Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, 5th ed. Topeka, KS. Mark Morris Institute.

    IBS In Cats and How CBD Can Help

    Cats are a vital aspect of our lives. We cherish their love and company. Sometimes, unfortunately, cats may suffer with IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) and as a consequence may cause a number of painful or debilitating symptoms.

    A shockingly new and powerful therapy for IBS in cats is cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabidiol is a hemp plant extract. Cannabidiol from hemp is highly effective, safe, and natural!

    IBS: What is it?

    IBS (Irritable bowel syndrome) is a linical condition that’s caused by chronic inflammation inside the GI (gastrointestinal) tract of mammals. It’s the main cause of GI tract problems in felines and is a pretty severe condition.

    If left neglected, it may progress to full-blown IBD (irritable bowel disease). In some instances, the words IBD and IBS are interchangeably used, even though they’re two different diseases. IBD is the more severe of the two.

    Generally, IBS basically is a “sensitive stomach”. That means your cat simply has a difficult time in digesting their food and has sickly, frequent bowel movements. It also might result in your cat being a “picky eater” as they might not have a healthy appetite because of their IBS.

    IBS In Cats

    Untreated, chronic IBS may result in a number of other problems for cats. IBS cats is a digestive system malfunctioning, it’ll mean that the feline might not be correctly absorbing nutrients from their food. It may lead to cat malnutrition. Malnutrition may lead to an entire variety of medical issues.

    Furthermore, IBS also can cause a compromised immune system. More than 50% of your pet’s immune function is inside their gastrointestinal tract. A dysfunctional gastrointestinal tract results in a weakened immune system.

    IBS in Cats: What Causes it?

    My cat has IBS, now what?

    There are a variety of causes of cat IBS, the most frequent being:
    • Deficiencies within the myoelectrical activity of the colon (which means that the cells inside the colon aren’t properly functioning)
    • Dietary fiber deficiencies
    • Agitation and/or chronic stress (CBD may help)
    • Food allergies (CBD assists with allergies) or cat IBS diet intolerances
    • Disturbances inside the neural regulation of the colon (which means that the area of the nervous system controlling digestion isn’t properly functioning)

    IBS is a general word for a broad condition, which means that it’s possible that the condition is the result of a mixture of the above causes. Taking your pet to the vet will permit you to determine the cause of the cat’s IBS in order for you to more effectively treat it.

    Symptoms of IBS in Cats

    IBS is prevalent in felines and may cause a number of symptoms which may be extremely distressing for your cat.

    They involve:
    • Chronic vomiting and/or nausea (IBS throwing up)
    • Lethargy, weakness, and/or chronic fatigue
    • Bloating and/or pain inside the abdomen
    • Dyschezia in cats (a term for constipation)
    • Discomfort and inflammation inside the bowel’s mucous membranes
    • Mucus and/or blood in the feces
    • Frequent passage of tiny quantities of feces
    • Chronic diarrhea in the large bowels

    Those symptoms may range from mild to debilitating. It also can be a nightmare for a dog owner since the disorder may cause the feline to have very little control over her bowels. Thereby, in many instances, they aren’t able to make it to the litter box before they defecate.

    It has symptoms which are similar to a number of additional cat IBS diet disorders and only can be diagnosed as those get ruled out.

    They include:
    • Tumors in the colon and/or stomach (colonic neoplasia)
    • A fungal, bacterial, and/or viral infection (histoplasmosis, pythiosis)
    • Ulcerative colitis or inflammatory colitis
    • Intestinal parasites (coccidia, giardia)
    • Intestinal worms (whipworms)

    Once those additional conditions are ruled out, your vet may make an accurate diagnosis. That’s why it’s important that you get your pet checked out if she exhibits any of the above symptoms.

    What is CBD and How Can You Use it in the Treatment of IBS in Cats?

    CBD is a wellness and health supplement that comes from the cannabis plant. The kinds of plants they utilize to manufacture legal cannabidiol specifically is industrial cannabis (more typically called hemp). CBD oil is made by using the stalks, leaves, and flowers of the hemp plant.

    It has become among the most promising, innovative, and thrilling new developments in treating numerous diseases inside the mammalian body.

    CBD is a cannabinoid, a group of compounds which play a critical part in the mammalian body. Their main action mode is binding to cannabinoid receptors situated throughout the cat’s body. It’ll result in a broad array of beneficial attributes. Those receptors are a part of the ECS (endocannabinoid system) that’s present inside the bodies of every mammal.

    IBS CBD

    Your pet easily can metabolize CBD and will suffer virtually no side effects! What’s more, unlike additional cannabis plant derivatives, CBD isn’t psychoactive. That just means it won’t make your pet high. While being high might be fun for some, it usually results in aggression, confusion, and agitation in your pet.

    CBD is amazing at helping manage IBS due to its numerous medicinal properties.

    Through its interactions with the endocannabinoid system, it may help treat:
    • Agitation and/or anxiety (stress)
    • Decreased appetite levels
    • Vomiting and/or nausea (IBS and throwing up)
    • Acute or chronic inflammation (all throughout the body, which includes the GI tract)
    • Various pain levels (acute or chronic)

    As a consequence, CBD and/or hemp oil for IBS helps manage both IBS symptoms (vomiting, nausea, and/or pain) as well as all underlying disease causes (stress and/or chronic inflammation inside the GI tract). It provides twice the effectiveness, which makes a powerful and potent tool without any adverse side effects. It’ll pack a punch while still being delicate on your cat’s body.

    IBD in cat’s natural remedies

    Let’s talk about some natural remedies for IBD in cats. Anxiety in cats is a very common issue. An array of factors contributes to this disorder, yet the core cause often is the kitty’s past experiences. There are several prescription medications which have the goal of treating anxiety in cats. But most cat owners like to use natural remedies such as CBD oil for feline anxiety.

    Also, there are many herbs which may generate calming effects in cats, yet most cat owners agree that cannabidiol works the most efficiently. The reason for that being the presence of the ECS inside the body of every mammal (which includes felines). The system of channels and receptors flows cannabinoids throughout all major organ system, aiding well-being in a number of ways. CBD is a non-toxic, natural compound with several therapeutic effects, one of which includes calming anxiety.

    If you have been wondering how you can use CBD oil for feline anxiety, below we list some critical things you ought to know:

    Feline Anxiety: What is it?

    Anxiety is the body’s natural reaction to stress or fear. It’s what gets the body ready to take evasive action if needed. It’s referred to as fight or flight response. This response is a crucial part of what assists in keeping animals and humans from danger. However, when this response is routinely triggered by an imagined hazard, it’ll become what’s referred to as an anxiety disorder.

    When we, or felines, are anxious, our bodies get ready for fight or flight. It’ll produce adrenaline, increase the heart rate, and gets the muscles prepared for action. As we’re in danger, those reactions assist in getting us out of trouble quickly. When we aren’t, it affects our capability of living a normal life. Serious anxiety disorders may be extremely debilitating, both for humans and for cats.

    Behavioral Symptoms of Feline Anxiety

    Unfortunately, a feline can’t tell us it’s feeling anxious. But, a cat that has anxiety will show some visible behavioral symptoms.

    Below we list some of the more common feline anxiety symptoms:
    • Idling still
    • Excessive grooming
    • Increased vigilance and restlessness
    • Increased dependency on people
    • Carpet or furniture scratching
    • Loss of weight and appetite
    • Loud or excessive meowing
    • Diarrhea and vomiting
    • Soiling in the house
    • Hiding away
    • Lethargy and tiredness

    Separation Anxiety in Felines

    Separation anxiety is the most typical kind of anxiety in felines. Feline separation anxiety is a situation in which cats exhibit anxiety symptoms as they’re separated from their owners. This type of anxiety is more typically related to dogs. Humans usually think that felines are independent creatures. They do not worry if their pet parents are there or not. The fact is that felines do form an extremely close bond with their pet parents. They also are highly aware of environmental changes.

    When a feline’s attachment to its pet parent becomes dysfunctional, separation anxiety may become serious. It may lead to behavioral issues. A feline that has separation anxiety might become extremely clingy.

    Besides showing common anxiety behavioral characteristics, a feline that has separation anxiety also may exhibit indications of distress as the owner is leaving or getting ready to leave. They’ll want to be with their pet parent all of the time and will oftentimes follow their pet parent from one room to another. They might attempt to get between the door and the owner if they think the pet parent is about to leave.

    Over exuberant greetings on their pet parent returning home might be one other tell-tale sign of a feline experiencing separation anxiety. Feline separation anxiety isn’t pleasant for the cat, and it may cause issues at home for the pet parent, as well. Though, there are a few preventative steps to assist in decreasing the onset of a feline’s separation anxiety.

    CBD: How Can it Help to Calm Cat Anxiety

    There’ve been several studies on the anti-anxiety impact of CBD. One study discovered that CBD decreases anxiety in those who have generalized social anxiety. Also, the research explains that CBD exhibits “a comparable efficacy to a 5-HT1AR agonist (ipsapirone) or diazepam” for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Both of those are typical anti-anxiety prescriptions.While recreational usage of cannabis may lead to anxiety, the anxiety stems from an additional cannabinoid referred to as THC. THC additionally causes a high feeling related to cannabis. It’s now a fact that cannabidiol has the opposite impact of THC and decreases anxiety. CBD does not have any mind-altering effects and doesn’t get you or your pet “high”.

    Scientists think that the use of CBD may initiate a temporary boost of serotonin in a feline’s brain. Serotonin is an essential hormone that balances our happiness, sense of well-being, and mood. An increase in serotonin may assist in improving your pet’s mood which, as a result, should relieve anxious behaviors.

    The advantages of CBD for feline anxiety have been proven in clinical studies on animals and humans alike. Studies are ongoing into the multiple therapeutic effects of CBD. CBD’s effectiveness for cats also has been confirmed by the great quantity of anecdotal proof given by pet owners. If you own a cat, utilizing CBD for her anxiety might be the best method of calming your cat and giving her a higher quality of life.

    How to treat IBS in cats

    The traditional IBS treatments are mainly outpatient procedures. But if the IBS progressed to a point that your pet is seriously malnourished and/or dehydrated, they must be admitted into a vet clinic. Cats typically will be there for a couple of days while they nurse the cats back to a suitable health level. They’ll likely suggest a dietary routine that helps manage the pet’s IBS.

    Unfortunately, IBS isn’t a curable disorder. It effectively can be managed, even though there isn’t any single treatment and your vet will likely require a mixture of numerous therapies.

    Those include:

    Dietary Changes and Management

    Cats with IBS what to feed? If your feline has IBS, your vet might require a hypoallergenic food trial. Basically, this is a process of elimination in figuring out what type of food is leading to the GI distress. You’ll need to feed the cat a protein (like duck, venison, or rabbit) and carb diet. They want to restrict their food consumption to only these sources.

    If your pet’s condition improves, you know they’re able to tolerate that particular food well. Other diet changes might involve foods which are low in fat, high in fiber, and easily digestible. Additional factors which influence this diet might involve your cat’s age, level of activity, breed, and/or any other clinical conditions.

    Does Prednisone Help IBS?

    Keep in mind that IBS mainly derives from chronic inflammation inside the GI tract. As a consequence, a commonly prescribed medication is a corticosteroid referred to as prednisone. Your vet also may prescribe immunosuppressive drugs or antibiotics. They’re used in the treatment of infections and chronic auto-inflammatory reactions inside the GI tract, respectively.

    Recent studies also have indicated that prebiotics and probiotics are helpful in creating healthy gut flora. It’s the word for the numerous beneficial bacteria which reside in the mammalian digestive system, as well as aids your cat in food digestion.

    Stress Management and Maintenance

    Stress is a huge IBS trigger. As the mammalian body gets stressed out, it’ll release a number of hormones needed for survival responses. But, if this stress is chronic, these hormones may begin to have deleterious effects on a body.

    Anti-anxiety meds might be prescribed to assist your cat in better handling their stressful environment. Routine human interaction, as well as healthy stimulation through play, toys, and consistent exercise also will redcue the levels of those stress hormones in your pet’s body.

    The most efficient maintenance for IBS in felines typically comprises of a blend of these different approaches. CBD is especially useful because you easily can supplement in all or any of those treatments without having to cause any sort of negative interactions. As a matter of fact, it only will increase the efficacy of additional treatments or drugs.

    CBD: Is it Safe for Your Pet?

    Absolutely! As a matter of fact, it’s very safe for your pet. It’s impossible for your pet to overdose on and if you administer too high of a dose, your pet will just sleep it off.

    Furthermore, you ought to consider businesses that routinely test their products like Innovet Pet Products.

    That testing includes:

    Potency

    It’ll ensure that the correct CBD concentration is present in every product sold, therefore resulting in precise dosage amounts. What’s more, it’ll ensure that it’s possible to effectively and safely treat your cat. Every batch is tested further for numerous cannabinoids and their amounts, which includes cannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerol, cannabichromene and tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Pesticides

    The hemp utilized for CBD generation has to be grown then harvested like any additional plant. All of the CBD products that are sold by Innovet are 100 percent pesticide free and organic. That means during no point in the process of harvesting are there any pesticides being used.

    Residual Solvents

    Innovet uses carbon dioxide extraction for the making of their CBD products. It’s a green technique that’s eco-friendly. In this process, extractors filter out all dangerous toxins and/or chemicals from the end CBD product.

    All these tests are undertaken by 3rd-party entities for Innovet Pet products to obtain COAs (certificates of analysis).

    Sources:

    Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, St. Georges University

    Sara Redding Ochoa, DVM was raised in north Louisiana. She graduated from LA Tech in 2011 with a degree in animal science. She then moved to Grenada West Indies for veterinary school. She completed her clinical year at Louisiana State University and graduated in 2015 from St. George’s University. Since veterinary school she has been working at a small animal and exotic veterinary clinic in east Texas, where she has experience treating all species that walk in the hospital. In her free time, she likes to travel with her husband Greg, bake yummy desserts and spend time with her 4-legged fur kids, a dog Ruby, a cat Oliver James “OJ”, a rabbit BamBam and a tortoise MonkeyMan.

    Thanks for stopping by!
    P.S. We Love You!

    Sincerely,
    The Innovet Team

    Please do not ask for emergency or specific medical questions about your pets in the comments . Innovet Pet Products is unable to provide you with specific medical advice or counseling. A detailed physical exam, patient history, and an established veterinarian are required to provide specific medical advice. If you are worried that your pet requires emergency attention or if you have specific medical questions related to your pet’s current or chronic health conditions, please contact or visit your local/preferred veterinarian, an animal-specific poison control hotline, or your local emergency veterinary care center.

    Please share your experiences and stories, your opinions and feedback about this blog, or what you’ve learned that you’d like to share with others.

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